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examples

unit01

Introduction

Setting up R and auxiliary programs for operating R and introducing a few tools if you get stuck.

Summary

What to do if you get lost in R?

unit02

Introduction

Learn about different levels of measurements and how information is arranged in data types in R.

Levels of Measurement

The Four Horsemen of Measurement - hear their names: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio.

Qualitative Data

The Four Horsemen of Measurement - hear their names: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio.

Quantitative Data

You already know about (non-numerical or categorical) qualitative data. But when you do have numbers, you have got quantitative data. Quantitative Data (“nu...

Summary

Summary The Four Types of Data: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Remember that the top-level category is eithe...

unit03

unit04

unit05

Introduction

You will learn how to set up the working environment

unit06

CSV

“Torture the data, and it will confess to anything.” – Ronald Coase

unit07

Operators

“Data is the new oil.” — Clive Humby

Decisions and Loops

Decision structures are like junctions in the analysis workflow and decide which way to go during runtime. Loops are the workhorses for repeating the same co...

For-loops

For-loops are the mother of all repeating structures which enable the execution of certain code blocks for multiple times. For-loops are useful if the number...

Loop and Conquer

This worksheet provides some control structure and loop examples to help you getting familiar with these probably most important properties of any programmin...

Lapply-loops

As examples for the apply family we shortly introduce lapply. Basic structure The lapply function can be your workhorse when it comes to loops over data fra...

If-then-else

If-then-else statements are the controlling structures in each program. The simplest form is: a <- 5.0 b <- 10.0 if (a < b) { print("a is smaller...

While-loops

As for loops, while loops are repeating structures which enable the execution of certain code blocks for multiple times. The difference is that for while loo...

unit08

Intoduction

At the end of this unit you should know how to sort bind merge specific datum in vectors, lists, matrices and data.frames. Comments? You can leave c...

Sorting

“It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data.” — Sherlock Holmes

Binding

“In God we trust, all others bring data.” — W Edwards Deming

Merging

To merge two data frames, you have to specify the column containing the values which should be used in the matching. In this example, we use the values of th...

unit09

Creating graphs

“No design works unless it embodies ideas that are held common by the people for whom the object is intended.” - Adrian Forty

Dotplot

What is a Dotplot? Short Version: A dot plot is just a bar chart that uses dots to represent individual quanta. Long Version: A Dot Plot, also called a...

Boxplot

What is a Boxplot? The box plot (also box-whisker plot) is a diagram used to graphically represent the distribution of a characteristic that is at least o...

Line Chart

What is a Line Chart? A line chart is the graphical representation of the functional relationship of two (with 2D representation) or three (with 3D repr...

Scatterplot

What is a Scatterplot? A scatter plot is a graphical representation of observed pairs of values of two statistical characteristics. These pairs of values ...

unit99