SDM workflow

All SDM approaches have a similar generic workflow:

The five main steps in the species distribution modelling cycle. Source: Zurell et. al 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.04960.
The five main steps in the species distribution modelling cycle. Source: Zurell et. al 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.04960.

Conceptualisation

Make a plan for your work first.

Data

The butterflies of Pakistan and maybe of whole Asia - depending on the outcome of the digitization part of this course - will serve as example in this course.

Model fitting

There are plenty of methods available for this step. Here are the arguably most important ones, which will be introduced by your tutorials:

Method
Profile methods
Bioclim
Domain
Regression methods
Generalized linear models
Generalized additive models
Machine-learning methods
MaxEnt
Random forest
Boosted regression trees
Neural networks
Support vector machines
XG Boost
Bayesian nonparametric regression
Ensemble methods
Model averaging

Assessment

Depends a bit on the method, but not too much.

Predictions

Are easy to make but difficult to reproduce and even more difficult to evaluate.